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Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in A revolution deposed the monarchy, and for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. Ina left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms.
It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europebeing bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeiraboth autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The final row shows the latest figures available. Consequently the above figures give an indication of the trend but the picture is inevitably incomplete. All national population figures are inevitably estimates but the estimates used in the World Prison Brief are based on official national figures, United Nations figures or figures from other recognised international authorities.
The Portuguese people reflect the influence of diverse ethnic groups. Centuries of assimilation, however, have imbued the Portuguese people with a remarkable degree of homogeneity. In recent decades, immigrants from Africa, Brazil, and Asia have given Portugal a more multicultural character.
The United States of America has the most diverse population than any other place in the world. It has citizens who have ancestry based in other countries thanks to the opportunities it accords people. People with Portuguese ancestry can be found all over the country.
Portuguese people are a Romance  ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese. Their predominant religion is Christianitymainly Roman Catholicismthough vast segments of the population, especially the younger generations, have no religious affiliation. Historically, the Portuguese people's heritage largely includes the pre-Celts and Celts CeltiberiansLusitaniansGallaeciansOestriminisTurduli and Celticiwho became culturally Romanized during the conquest of the region by the ancient Romans.
Some Chinese slaves in Spain ended up there after being brought to Lisbon in Portugal and sold when they were boys. There are records of Chinese slaves in Lisbon in In sixteenth century southern Portugal there were Chinese slaves but the number of them was described as "negligible", being outnumbered by East Indian, Mourisco, and African slaves.