Patterns in the association of individuals can shed light on the underlying conditions and processes that shape societies. We observed individually-identified adult female elephants over 20 months and examined their social dynamics at three levels of organization: pairs of individuals dyadssmall sets of direct companions ego-networksand the population level complete networks. Corroborating previous studies of this and other Asian elephant populations, we find that the sizes of elephant groups observed in the field on any particular day are typically small and that rates of association are low.
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By Bernice Wuethrich. Jon Kalb, a palaeontologist at the University of Texas at Austin, has compiled a history of these elephantoids that stretches back 10 million years. It reveals a pattern of progressive migrations along the lakes, as tectonic activity shifted their position.
They are smaller than the African elephant with smaller ears, but are the largest land mammal in Asia. They can reach 24 feet long and weighing as much as 11, pounds 5. Females are smaller.
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Luteogenesis plays a decisive role in mammalian reproduction. The corpus luteum CLas the initial source of progesterone, forms after ovulation from granulosa and theca cells of the ruptured dominant follicle wall. The finding of multiple CLs has driven different hypotheses.
Elephants play an important role in preserving the forest and the ecosystems within. As herbivors, elephants disperse seeds that will grow into new trees. In the dry season, elephants dig the ground with its tusks to find water, which can be used by all life forms.
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Kanthi far left and Kamala far right were the most inseparable pair of elephants we saw during the study. Members of their social group, the K unit, were often together whenever they were seen. Yet not all social units were so tightly knit, with individuals being scattered into small groups quite far apart. Male and female Asian elephants form distinct parallel societies in which adult females and calves move together and form visible groups whereas adult males are typically more solitary.