This document was amended in July to reflect literature that was released since the original publication of this content in May This document will continue to be periodically updated to reflect the growing body of literature related to this topic. Hematuria is defined as the presence of red blood cells in the urine.
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Abstract: Myelitis is a rare neurological disorder of the spinal cord that is caused by inflammation and can have devastating neurologic effects with up to two-thirds of patients having a moderate to severe degree of residual disability. Symptoms typically develop over hours or days and then worsen over a matter of days to weeks. Patients can present with sensory alteration, weakness, and autonomic dysfunction including bowel and bladder problems, temperature dysregulation, or even bouts of hypertension.
Sterile pyuria SP is not an uncommon finding in clinical practice. Nine per cent of patients presenting to their GP with lower urinary symptoms, and who are suspected of having urinary tract infections UTIsare found to have SP. Currently no agreed definition for SP exists.
Carcinoma of the epithelial lining of the urinary tract is known as urothelial cancer and may involve the bladder most commonrenal pelvisuretersand urethra rare. Patients often present with painless gross hematuria or irritative voiding symptoms, although some cases are incidentally detected microscopic hematuria on urinalysis. Non-muscleinvasive bladder tumors are treated with transurethral resection of the tumor and intravesical instillation of BCG or chemotherapeutic agents.
The clinical manifestations of hyperuricosuria HU are usually underestimated by the clinician. The aim of this study was to review the clinical spectrum of symptomatology of HU and to evaluate the presence of associated hypercalciuria HC and hyperoxaluria HX. A retrospective review was done on 64 children with HU seen between January and December The mean age at diagnosis was 80 months range six to months.
Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; Proteinuria in adults: a diagnostic approach.